Preliminary physicochemical analysis of extracted oil and pulverized seeds from underutilized savannah tree Acacia sieberiana (DC)

Abubakar Salisu, Osuji Charles, Afolayan Michael, Adebiyi Adedayo, Mawobi Gebriel

Abstract


Objective: The research was carried out to preliminarily evaluate the physicochemical and quality assessment of extracted oil and pulverized seeds of underutilized tree Acacia sieberiana growing in Sub - Sahara part of Nigeria.

Methods: The oil was extracted using hexane as a solvent of extraction, adopting the method described by Association of Official Analytical Chemist. The properties of pulverized powder was subjected to physicochemical analysis.

Results: Acacia sieberiana seeds gave an oil yield of 10.91% which was light yellow in colour. The oil had moisture content of 5.772%, viscosity of 35.02 cst, saponification value of 144.02 mgKOH / g, unsaponifiable matter of 11.42 g / Kg, iodine value of 154.12 mg / g, acid value of 19.98 mgKOH / g, and peroxide value of 2.70 mEq / Kg. The pulverised seeds showed a swelling and solubility profile that is temperature dependent with increasing swelling power and solubility index as temperature increased. Other physicochemical parameters of the seeds are gelatinization temperature – 72 OC, browning temperature: 250.6 – 251.8 OC, Charring temperature: 280.4 – 293.1 OC, pH – 5.22, foam capacity – 8 %, emulsion capacity – 68.5 %, water holding capacity – 74.74 ml, bulk density – 0.4785 g / cm3 and tapped density – 0.5495 g / cm3.

Conclusions: From the physicochemical characterization of the oil, it has very low degree of unsaturation and can be stored for a long time without getting rancid. This can make it useful in various industries and for human and animal consumption. Also, the seed flour has good physicochemical properties.


Keywords


Acacia sieberiana, oil, Seeds, Physicochemical, Savannah tree

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