The monitoring and assessment of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the coasts of north western suez gulf, Egypt

E.A. Omayma, A. F. Nazik, M. K. Eman, A. El. Enas, M.E. Mustafa


Objective: The objective of this work is the monitoring of pollutants from theSuez bay, industrial zones inSuez and Beaches inIsmailia city. These areas may be considerable amounts received pollutants from the shipping inputs arise from operational activities and deliberating discharges of waste and water tankers.

Methods: Eight surface water samples were collected from the area of study, comprises the important parts ofSuez Canal. All the oils-extracted from the water samples were analyzed using capillary column according to the standard test method IP318/75.

Results: The results show numerous recent inputs of petroleum products especially crude oils at various locations dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 5.639 up to 74.8 and 1.868 to 65.698 mg\ml for summer and winter seasons, indicates chronic oil pollution. The gas chromatographic analysis indicates that oil pollutants extracted from water samples are at different weathering states. pristane\phytane ratio close to unity and low CPI values <1 suggest the petrogenic influence. On the other hand, FT-IR spectrometric analysis confirms the petrogenic nature of pollutants.

Conclusions: The extracted oils are different degree of weathering which demotes continuous oils spills or inputs. Some samples display predominant bio- synthesized pristane presumably derived from marine plankton. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis indicates high concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons, mono, poly–nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and naphthenic compounds. The aliphatic hydrocarbon shows the presence of petroleum pollution with different degrees of weathering effects, mixed biogenic hydrocarbons.


Water pollution, Oil spills, Petrogenic and biogenic origins, Suez Canal

Full Text:



Greg Toffoli, E. Petroleum Hydrocarbons Methodology, 3; 2010:1 -3

Hanan B H. Thesis submitted for Ph.D., Assessment of pollution in the marine Environment in Suez Canal. Fac. Sci., Al-Azhar University, 2007.

Riazi MR, Al-Enezi G, Al-Mukharreq A. Modeling of the rate of oil spill disappearance from seawater proceedings of the international conference on development and application of computer techniques to environmental studies, 1998.

Awad H, Al-Moharamy MA, Eissa SA. Omanian land-based oil inputs to the Gulf of Oman oil and chemical pollution. 1990; 6(2): 91-99.

Hanna RG. Available data for management of the Egyptian red sea coastal areas, Coastal Zone: proceedings of the symposium on coastal and ocean management publ. by ASCE New York, NY, USA. 1991: 3433-3445.

Cuesta I, Grau FX, Giralt F. Numerical simulation of in generalized oil spills domain, Oil and chemical pollution. 1990; 7(2): 143-159.

Bianchi AP, Bianchi CA, Varney MS. Marina developments as sources of hydrocarbon inputs to estuaries. Oil and Chemical pollution. 1989; 5(6): 477-88. Computational mechanics publ, Ashurts, Engl. p35-44.

William G, Belinda C, Mohammed R S. Environmental impacts of tourism in the Gulf and the Red Sea. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2013; 72 (2): 375–388.

Fanping M, Zhifeng W, Fenglian C, Du Xiuping, Fu Wenchao, Qun Wang, Xiaoyan Yi. The assessment of environmental pollution along the coast of Beibu Gulf, northern South China Sea: An integrated biomarker approach in the clam Meretrix meretrix. Mar. Environ. Res. 2013; 85: 64–75.

Renee I A, Nagla M K, Mohamid I R. Monitoring of pollution in Egyptian Red Sea, Egyptian Journal of Petroleum. 2015; 24:59–70.

Emara M M, Farid N, Saad R, Omayma E.A, Ibrahim M. Contamination of Surface Seawaters by Hydrocarbons in the North Western of Suez Gulf. Egypt. J. Anal. Chem. 2015; 24; 19- 42.

Omayma EA, Sawsan A M, Nazik A F. Occurrence and distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface waters collected along costal area, Suez Gulf. Egypt. J. Chem. 2015; 58(1): 43- 69.

IP Standards for Analysis and Testing Of Petroleum and Related Products; 1993.

Renee I A, Nagla M K, Mohamed I R. Monitoring of pollution in sediments of the coasts in Egyptian Red Sea, Egyptian Journal of Petroleum. 2016; 25:133–151

Maged M S, Omayma E A, Nazik AF, Abd El Rahman MM. Hydrocarbon contamination in manzalah lake water. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum. 1999; 8: 79-87.

De-Golyer, Mcnauighton, twentieth Century Petroleum statistics, Dallas, Degolyer and Mac, vauhton. 1990.

Watanable M, Tanable S, Tastsukawa R, Amono M, Miyazaki N, Petrov E A , Khuraskin S I. Concentration level and Specific Accumulation of persist ant organ Chlorines In Caspian Seal (Phoca Caspian) from the Caspian Sea, Russia "Archives of Environmental and toxicology. 1999; 37: 396-407.

Al-Saad HT, Farid WA, Al-Adhub AY. Distribution and Seasonal Variations of n-alkanes in the some species of mollascs of shatt Al-Arab river mesopat. Mar .Sci, 2011; 26(2):182-196.

Saida BK, Soumaya B I, Alain S, Hassan Er R. Assessment of the Moroccan Mediterranean Coasts Contamination by Hydrocarbons and Linear Alkylbenzenes, "Received April 6, 23011, revised August 16, 2011 accepted September 28.

Abd El Rahman M, Nazik A F, Maged M S and Omyma E A. State of Petroleum pollution in the south eastern mediterrancan Sea, Port Said coastal waters,.Egypt. J. Petrol. 2001; 10 (2): 1-14.

Dulta T k, Harayama S. Fate of crude oil by the combination of photo-oxidation and Biodegradation technology. 2000; 34: 1500-1505.

Omayma E A, Sawsan A M, Abd El Rahman M M. Monitoring and Assessment of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Surface Seawater along Alexandria Coasts, Egypt International Journal of Environment, ISSN: 2077-4508; 2015; 04 (01): 70-86.

Boehm P D, Barak J, Fiest DL, Elskus A A. A chemical investigation of the transport and fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in littoral and benthic environments: The Tsesis oil spill. Mar. Environ. Res. 1982; 6: 157-188.

Wang Z, Fingas M, Sergy G. Chemical Characterization of Crude Oil Residues from an Arctic Beach by GC/MS and GC/FID. Environmental Science and Technology. 1995b; 29 (10): 2622–2631.

Omayma E A, Sawsan A M, Abd El Rahman M M. Aliphatic and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons Pollution at the Drainage Basin of Suez Oil Refinery Company. Current Science International, 2015, 4 (01): 27-44.

Omayma E. Ahmed, Sawsan M. A., El Nady M. M., Application of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in identification of organic pollution in seawater around Alexandria coastal area, Egypt. Journal of Environment and Life Sciences, 2016, 1 (1): 39-55.

El Nady, M. M, and Harb, F. H., Significance of aromatic hydrocarbons in recognizing source depositional environments and maturation of some Egyptian crude oils. J. Energy Sources, 2009, 31(9):773-782.

Leahy JG, Colwell RR. Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons in the Environment Microb .Rev. 1990; 53 (3):305-315.

Prince R, Garrett R, Bare R, Grossman M, Townsed T, Sufltas J, Lessard R. The Roles of Photo-Oxidation and Biodegradation in long–term weathering of crude oils and heavy fuel oils. Spill science and technology Bulletin. 2003; 8 (2):145-156.

Yanker MB, Macdonaid R W, Cretney W J, Fowie BR, Aughin FA. Alkane, terpene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon Geochemistry of Mackenzie River and Mackenzie Shelf-reverie Contribution to Beaufort Sea Coastal Sediment .Geochemical et Coschimica Acta. 1993; 57: 3041-3061.

Sauer T C, Brown J, Boehm D V, Micheal J, Hayes MO. Hydrocarbon Source Identification and Weathering Characterization of Intertidal and subtidal sediment along Saudi Arabian coast after the Gulf war oil spill. Marine pollution Bulletin. 1993; 27: 117-134.

Readman J W, Fillimann G, Toiosa I, Bartocci J, Vill eneuve J P, Catini C, Meo LD. Petroleum and Concentration of the Black Sea. Marine pollution Bulletin. 2002; 44:48-62.

Ashton B M, East R S, Waish M M, Mite M S, Overton EB. Studying and verifying the use of chemical Biomarker for Identifying and Quantizing oil Residues in the environment, ocs study MMS 2000-086/US Dept.of the interior ,minerals management service ,Gulf of Mexico ocs Region New Orleans 1A. 2002.

Klinedam S R, Rugner H, Mligouis B, Grathwohi P. Organic Matter Facies and Equilibrium Sorption of phenantherene, Environmental Science and Technology. 1999; 33: 1637-1644.

Guor–Cheny, Fang y S, Wu, Cheng N. Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentration and Source Identifications by Methods of Diagnostic Ratio and principle Component Analysis. Chemosphere. 2006; 64: 1233-1242.

Atlas RM, Boehm PD, Calder J A. Chemical and Biological weathering of oil from the Amoco Cadiz oil spillage, within the littoral zone. Estuarine Costal and Marine science. 1981; .12: 589-608.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Environment and Life Sciences

Indexed In

Google Scolar
Creative Commons

Follow Us

facebook twitter

Get in touch
+91-701  913  9881
© Copyright 2018. All Rights Reserved.  By iMedPharm